Olga Ladyzhenskaya’s 97th Birthday
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Google Doodle of today is about a great mathematician, Olga Ladyzhenskaya. She belongs to Russia. She had to overcome her personal tragedy and obstacles to bring out her entire potential and contribute to the world of mathematics. But she did not confine herself to mathematics, she loved arts and nature. Let us take a look at how Olga Ladyzhenskaya overcame all her troubles and reached a peak within her life ended.
Olga Ladyzhenskaya – Early Life and Education:
Olga Ladyzhenskaya was born on this day in a rural town called Kologriv. Her father belonged to Russian nobility and was also a Mathematician. During her young days, she fell in love with Algebra and the only reason for this was her father. When she was just 15 years old, the Soviet authorities accused Olga Ladyzhenskaya’s dad as “enemy of the state”. They imprisoned and executed him. As days went, her family was curbed into financial burdens. Her mother and sisters started to sell shoes, dress, and soaps to meet the financial needs of the family and survival.
We got to know that she had a great interest in Mathematics. Obviously, she graduated from secondary school with good grades. Yet, the system denied her admission to Leningrad State University because of her family name. Despite graduating from secondary school with excellent grades, she was later denied admission to Leningrad State University because of her family name. She started to teach math to school students and meanwhile was trying for admissions to study further. Read more on the Google Doodle page.
Finally, she got admission in the Moscow State University. There she studied under the well – known mathematician Ivan Petrovsky. She earned her Ph.D. and went on to head the Laboratory of Mathematical Physics at the Steklov Mathematical Institute. She got a lot of chances and offers to stay outside the troublesome Soviet, yet chose to be with the economic problems and nationalistic issues.
Olga Ladyzhenskaya – Discoveries and Honors:
Olga Ladyzhenskaya stood high as the author of more than 250 papers. It contained methods for solving partial differential equations. She reached places very quickly after her super contributions to mathematics. She was a member of the St. Petersburg Mathematical Society since 1959. Later, she even became the President of the same. Her work got the recognition of various institutions from around the world. See also: Teresa Carreño
The Russian Academy of Sciences gave her the award Lomonosov Gold Medal in the year 2002. In 1954 she received an award from the Leningrad State University; she received the same prize again in 1961. After that, she received another award from the Chebyshev Prize of the USSR Academy of Sciences and the State Prize of the USSR in 1969. In 1981, she became the member of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR. She elected a foreign member of the Deutsche Academie der Naturforscher Leopoldina in 1985 and of the Academia Nazionale dei Lincei in 1989.
Olga Ladyzhenskaya also served as a full member of the Russian Academy of Sciences in 1990, and a foreign member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 2001. She received the S.V. Kovalevsky prize in 1992, an honorary doctorate from the University of Bonn in 2002, and the Golden Lomonosov Medal, the Ioffe Medal, and the St. Petersburg University Medal in 2003. In 1998, she delivered the John von Neumann Lecture at the SIAM Annual Meeting in Toronto. See also: Lev Landau – A renowned physicist
Olga Ladyzhenskaya – Her mathematical works:
The subject of Ladyzhenskaya’s doctoral dissertation, which was supervised by S.L. Sobolev and which she defended in 1949, was the development of finite difference methods for linear and quasilinear hyperbolic systems of partial differential equations. Afterward, she continued to study boundary-value and initial boundary-value problems for partial differential equations of all types. Several of the results she obtained were summarized in a monograph that she used as her Dr. Sc. thesis, which she defended in 1953 at Moscow State University. In 1951, she proved her
famous second fundamental inequality for elliptic operators of order two with smooth coefficients, i.e.,
Ladyzhenskaya turned her attention to the Navier–Stokes equations, which were to interest her for the rest of her
life. In the steady-state case, she proved the global solvability of problems in bounded and exterior domains. For initial boundary value problems, she proved the unique solvability for small enough time. She also did the global unique solvability for small enough data. In dimension two, with the help of multiplicative inequality.
Ladyzhenskaya believed that, in three dimensions and for large Reynolds numbers, the Navier–Stokes equations do not give a complete and correct description of the dynamics of fluids. One of the serious arguments supporting this belief was her own result on non-uniqueness in the class of weak Hopf solutions. This led her to propose
modifications to the Navier–Stokes system, which she presented at the International Congress of Mathematicians in Moscow in 1966. Finally. for these modified Navier–Stokes equations, she proved the global unique solvability of the important boundary-value and initial boundary-value problems. There are so many more to talk about her contributions.
Let us take her as our inspiration to tackle down all the hardships into success steps and receive what we need out of this fertile Universe! Happy Birthday, Olga Ladyzhenskaya!!!